TERMS & NAMES 2 ChallengesChallenges toto thethe Battle of Fallen Timbers Treaty of NewNew GovernmentGovernment Greenville Whiskey Rebellion French Revolution MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW neutral Jay’s Treaty Washington established central Washington’s policies at home and Pinckney’s Treaty authority at home and avoided war abroad set an example for later with European powers. presidents.
ONE AMERICAN’S STORY Pioneers had been moving west since before the Revolution. However, the settlers met fierce resistance from Native Americans. One of their most respected military leaders was Chief Little Turtle of the Miami tribe of Ohio. In 1790 and 1791, he had won decisive victories against U.S. troops. Now, two years later, the Miami and their allies again faced attack by American forces. At a council meeting, Little Turtle gave a warning to his people about the troops led by General Anthony Wayne.
General Anthony Wayne negotiates A VOICE FROM THE PAST with a Miami war chief. We have beaten the enemy twice under different commanders. . . . The Americans are now led by a chief [Wayne] who never sleeps. . . . During all the time he has been marching on our villages . . . we have not been able to surprise him. Think well of it. . . . It would be prudent [wise] to listen to his offers of peace. Little Turtle, quoted in The Life and Times of Little Turtle
While the council members weighed Little Turtle’s warning, President Washington was making plans to secure—guard or protect— the western borders of the new nation.
Securing the Northwest Territory As a general, Washington had skillfully waged war. As the nation’s president, however, he saw that the country needed peace in order to prosper. But in spite of his desire for peace, he considered military action as trouble brewed in the Trans-Appalachian West, the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. The 1783 Treaty of Paris had attempted to resolve the claims. The source of the trouble was competing claims for these lands. Some years later, however, Spain, Britain, the United States, and Native Americans claimed parts of the area as their own. Spain held much of North America west of the Mississippi. It also claimed Florida and the port of New Orleans at the mouth of the
298 CHAPTER 9 Mississippi. For American settlers in the West, this port was key to trade. They carried their goods to market by flatboat down the Mississippi to New Orleans. They took Spanish threats to close the port very seriously. The Spanish also stirred up trouble between the white settlers and the Creeks, Choctaws, and other Native American groups in the Southeast. A. Making The strongest resistance to white settlement came from Native Inferences What Americans in the Northwest Territory. This territory was bordered by the expectations Ohio River to the south and Canada to the north. Native Americans in might the Native Americans have that territory hoped to join together to form an independent Native had of the British American nation. In violation of the Treaty of Paris, the British still held as the tribes forts north of the Ohio River. The British supported Native Americans in came into conflict with order to maintain their access to fur in these territories. Eventually, Native white settlers? Americans and white settlers clashed over the Northwest Territory. A. Answer Native Americans proba- bly expected the Battle of Fallen Timbers British to support Believing the Northwest Territory was critical to the security and them in their growth of the new nation, Washington sent troops to the Ohio Valley. conflicts with American settlers As you read in One American’s Story, this first federal army took a beat- since both were ing from warriors led by Little Turtle in 1790. The chief ’s force came clashing with from many tribes, including the Shawnee, Ottawa, and Chippewa, who American settlers. joined in a confederation to defeat the federal army. After a second defeat in 1791 of an army headed by General Arthur St. Clair, Washington ordered another army west. This time Anthony The Battle of Fallen Timbers Skillbuilder Wayne, known as “Mad Anthony” for his reckless courage, was at its head. memorial Answers The other chiefs ignored Little Turtle’s advice to negotiate. They sculpture below 1. Land surren- shows two dered by Native replaced him with a less able leader. Expecting British help, Native American soldiers Americans in American warriors gathered at British-held Fort Miami. On August and a Native Treaty of 20, 1794, a fighting force of around 2,000 Native Americans clashed American. Greenville 2. Rivers and lakes with Wayne’s troops. The site was covered with trees that had been provided an easy struck down by a storm. The Native Americans were defeated in what way to move became known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. troops and supplies.
The Trans-Appalachian West, 1791–1795
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. Battle of . L Fallen Timbers L. Erie Ft. Miami Ft. Wayne PENNSYLVANIA . ash R. R ab GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER s W oi in NORTHWEST St. Clair's Pittsburgh Interpreting Maps ll I TERRITORY Defeat Ft. Greenville 1. Region What does the yellow Land ceded (surrendered) by Native Americans in area of the map represent? Treaty of Greenville (1795) 2. Location Why might the British forts be located near water? . Battle 0 100 Miles o R VIRGINIA Ohi U.S.-held fort 0 200 Kilometers KENTUCKY British-held fort 299 The Native Americans retreated to Fort Miami. The British, not want- ing war with the United States, refused to help them. The Battle of Fallen B. Reading a Map Timbers crushed Native American hopes of keeping their land in the Use the map on page 299 to see Northwest Territory. Twelve tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville in which two states 1795. They agreed to cede, or surrender, much of present-day Ohio and to the south Indiana to the U.S. government. bordered the land ceded by The Whiskey Rebellion Native Americans. Not long after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Washington put another army into the field. The conflict arose over the government’s tax on whiskey, part of Hamilton’s financial plan. From Pennsylvania to Georgia, outraged farmers resisted the tax. For them, whiskey—and the grain it was made from—were important products. Because of poor roads, backcountry farmers had trouble getting their grain to market. Crops such as wheat and rye were more easily carried to market in liquid form, so farmers made their grain into whiskey. A farmer’s horse could haul only two bushels of rye but could carry two barrels of rye whiskey. This was an amount equal to 24 bushels of the grain. In addition, their customers paid more for whiskey than grain. With little cash to buy goods, let alone pay the tax, farmers often traded whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods. The farmers used whiskey as money to get whatever supplies they needed.
Why Should You Obey Rules and Laws? Obeying Rules and Laws 1. What are some arguments in As the Whiskey Rebellion shows, since the earliest days of the favor of curfew laws? What are republic our government has made laws and punished those who arguments against them? Make a list of each. broke them. These laws affect not only adult citizens, but young people as well. 2. Poll your classmates to see how many agree with each position. Today, for example, communities across the country are trying 3. Write an essay expressing your to control the problem of juvenile crime by imposing curfews opinion on this issue. on young people. These laws require 4. Brainstorm changes or minors to be off the streets after a adaptations to curfew laws that certain time, often ten or eleven at you think would make them night. Penalties can be harsh. In cer- more flexible. tain communities, minors who break See Citizenship curfew laws can be detained, and Handbook, page 283. their parents can be fined. For more about young people and People who favor curfews believe the law . . . such laws cut crime. Those who RESEARCH LINKS oppose curfews think such limits CLASSZONE.COM are the responsibility of parents and not the government.
300 CHAPTER 9 In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in western “Such a Pennsylvania staged the Whiskey Rebellion against the tax. One armed group beat up a tax collector, coated him with tar resistance and feathers, and stole his horse. Others threatened an armed is treason.” attack on Pittsburgh. Alexander Hamilton Washington, urged on by Hamilton, was prepared to enforce the tax and crush the Whiskey Rebellion. They feared that not to act might undermine the new government and weaken its authority. Hamilton condemned the rebels for resisting the law.
A VOICE FROM THE PAST Such a resistance is treason against society, against liberty, against everything that ought to be dear to a free, enlightened, and prudent people. To tolerate it were to abandon your most precious interests. Not to subdue it were to tolerate it. Alexander Hamilton, The Works of Alexander Hamilton EYEWITNESS TO REVOLUTION In 1789, an American citizen In October 1794, General Henry Lee, with with a strange first name, Hamilton at his side, led an army of 13,000 soldiers Gouverneur Morris, went to into western Pennsylvania to put down the uprising. Paris as a private business agent. Three years later, President As news of the army’s approach spread, the rebels fled. Washington appointed him U.S. After much effort, federal troops rounded up 20 bare- minister to France. An eyewit- foot, ragged prisoners. Washington had proved his point. ness to the French Revolution, Morris kept a detailed record of He had shown that the government had the power and what he saw, including the exe- the will to enforce its laws. Meanwhile, events in Europe cution of the king and queen by gave Washington a different kind of challenge. guillotine, as shown below. Here is part of a letter he wrote on October 18, 1793: The French Revolution “Terror is the order of the In 1789, a financial crisis led the French people to rebel Day. . . . The Queen was executed the Day before against their government. Inspired by the American yesterday. Insulted during Revolution, the French revolutionaries demanded lib- her Trial and reviled in erty and equality. At first, Americans supported the her last Moments, she French Revolution.By 1792,however,the revolution behav’d with Dignity throughout.” had become very violent. Thousands of French citizens were massacred. Then, in 1793, Louis XVI, the king of France, was executed. Other European monarchs believed the revolution threatened their own thrones. France soon declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain. Britain led the fight against France. The war between France and Britain put the United States in an awkward position. France had been America’s ally in the Revolution against the British.
301 A 1778 treaty still bound the two nations together. In addition, many saw France’s revolution as proof that the American cause had been just. Jefferson felt that a move to crush the French Revolution was an attack on liberty every- where. Hamilton, though, pointed out that Britain was the United States’ most C. Drawing Conclusions important trading partner, and British trade was too important to risk war. What sort of U.S. In April 1793, Washington declared that the United States would obligation to remain neutral, not siding with one country or the other. He stated that France did the wartime alliance the nation would be “friendly and impartial” to both sides. Congress and treaty of then passed a law forbidding the United States to help either side. 1778 create? C. Answer Since Remaining Neutral France supported the U.S. in its Britain made it hard for the United States to remain neutral. Late in Revolution, many 1792, the British began seizing the cargoes of American ships carrying people thought the U.S. should goods from the French West Indies. support France. Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to England for talks about the seizure of U.S. ships. Jay also hoped to persuade the British to give up their forts on the Northwest frontier. During the talks in 1794, news came of the U.S. victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Fearing another entan- glement, the British agreed to leave the Ohio Valley by 1796. In Jay’s D. Answer By Treaty, the British also agreed to pay damages for U.S. vessels they had remaining neutral, seized. Jay failed, however, to open up the profitable British West Indies the new nation trade to Americans. Because of this, Jay’s Treaty was unpopular. did not make ene- mies, did not lose Like Jay, Thomas Pinckney helped the United States reduce tensions a trading partner, along the frontier. In 1795, Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain gave did not become Americans the right to travel freely on the Mississippi River. It also gave involved in a war.
them the right to store goods at the port of New Orleans without paying D. Evaluating customs duties. In addition, Spain accepted the 31st parallel as the north- What were some ern boundary of Florida and the southern boundary of the United States. of the advantages to the new nation Meanwhile, more American settlers moved west. As you will read in the of remaining next section, change was coming back east as Washington stepped down. neutral?
Section2 Assessment 1. Terms & Names 2. Taking Notes 3. Main Ideas 4. Critical Thinking Explain the Use a chart to record U.S. a. What military and other Drawing Conclusions significance of: responses to various chal- actions secured the West for Why was neutrality a difficult • Battle of Fallen lenges. the United States? policy for the United States Timbers to maintain? Challenge Response b. Why did Washington con- • Treaty of Greenville sider it important to put THINK ABOUT • Whiskey Rebellion From Spain down the Whiskey Rebellion? • ties with France • French Revolution From Britain c. How did the French • ties with Britain • neutral From France Revolution create problems • restrictions on trade • Jay’s Treaty for the United States? • Pinckney’s Treaty Which challenge seemed greatest? Why? ACTIVITY OPTIONS GEOGRAPHY Make a map that describes the Battle of Fallen Timbers, or draw a scene from ART that battle.
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The Whiskey Rebellion was the first test of federal authority in the United States. This rebellion enforced the idea that the new government had the right to levy a particular tax that would impact citizens in all states.
The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania in protest of a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government.
President George Washington responded to the rebellion by sending a 12,000 soldiers to Pennsylvania to confront the rebels, who disbanded without a single shot fired. The Whiskey Rebellion marked the first major challenge to federal authority in the young United States.
The Whiskey Rebellion was a response to the excise tax proposed by Alexander Hamilton, who was Washington's Secretary of the Treasury in 1791.