Social Welfare Programs and Policies • Nursing Area (2023)

6.1 Social Welfare Programs and Policies

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Social welfare programs encompass those goods and services that a society believes to be a collective responsibility. They include Social Security, public assistance, food stamps and food vouchers, medical care, housing and housing subsidies, child care, unemployment and workers’ compensations, veterans’ benefits, and personal social services.

The major health and welfare systems in the United States are patchy, uneven, and scanty. The term social welfare system implies a sense of order, comprehensiveness, and rational planning. But that is not the way things are. In fact, the social welfare system is more like a patchwork quilt. Bits and pieces of theories, interventions, and funding are patched together to form programs and helping agencies.

(Video) Intro to social welfare policy

Of course, this system differs from a quilt. A quilt comes together as a whole piece to keep someone warm in bed on a cold night. The system does not serve everyone’s needs equally. It is always in the process of being pieced together and is also increasingly being ripped apart. Despite its status as what has been called a “reluctant welfare state,” the U.S. programs of assistance have raised millions of people out of poverty, given medical care to the poor and the aged, provided compensatory education, and provided food, housing, and cash assistance to the poor, the elderly, and the disabled. We discuss some of these programs here.

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)

Politicians score points by being “tough on welfare” and “tough on crime.” Sometimes they link the two issues, as if being on welfare were a crime. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) has drawn fierce fire in the anti-welfare war. It is a program that provides income to families with dependent children, generally headed by a single parent but also available on a limited basis to two-parent families. About 95 percent of the single parents are women.

Cash assistance to needy families was part of the Social Security Act of 1935. The program was first called ADC (Aid to Dependent Children) because parents were not included. Mothers were not included until 1950, and unemployed fathers were not included until 1965, when the name of the program was changed to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Until 1996 the federal government set guidelines and shared program costs with the states; the states set benefit levels. Everyone who was eligible was entitled to assistance. That is no longer true. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 ended federal control over AFDC and gave the states block grants to run their own programs. By ending the entitlement status of AFDC, the federal government, for the first time in sixty years, no longer guaranteed that it would help families in need. Conservatives in Congress proclaimed a victory; liberal senator Edward Kennedy, who voted against the bill, proclaimed it “legislative child abuse” (Edelman, 1997). Journalist Bob Herbert called it “officially sanctioned brutality” (Herbert, 1996).

The state programs that were held up as models for other states to copy were the more punitive ones. The most outspoken advocate of dismantling welfare was Governor Tommy Thompson of Wisconsin, who was appointed director of the federal Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) by President George W. Bush in 2001 (and resigned in 2003). He implemented the “W-2” program in Wisconsin, which called for replacing welfare with work. In this program, women were required to work when their children reach 12 weeks of age and there was a two-year time limit for supported work or community service (Miranne & Young, 1998). The program was more successful at kicking people off the rolls than helping families. During the recession, 40 percent of Wisconsin’s children received food stamps.

In April 2008, Wisconsin scaled back its workfare program and began a pilot program called Real Work for Real Pay, where participants in real jobs earned a pay check and were trained to develop job skills (Crisp, & Fletcher, 2008).

The Wisconsin TANF program was sued in 2010 by Legal Action of Wisconsin, Inc., the American Civil Liberties of Wisconsin, and the Milwaukee branch of the NAACP, on the grounds of discrimination on the basis of race and disability in the administration of the W-2 program. A study found that there were significant racial disparities in sanction rates for alleged failures to comply with program requirements. Both Latino and African-American program participants were sanctioned at a higher rate than white program participants. The settlement of the lawsuit required administrators of the W-2 program to ensure that qualified individuals with disabilities receive reasonable accommodations, which may include job training and supports for a longer time period than what is typically afforded, sign language interpreters, or in-depth services from the Wisconsin Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).

Time Limits

There was no time limit on AFDC, but the Personal Responsibility Act set a lifetime time limit of five years in which people could receive assistance. Some states set shorter time limits than the federal limit. States are free to set no time limit at all if they want to pay for the program out of state funds after the federal time limit is up, and Maine did that. The law does not require that assistance be in the form of cash. It can be in the form of vouchers. Some states even turned over the program to counties (Edelman, 1997).

Workfare

After two months of being on welfare, recipients are required to find a community service job if they have not found paid employment. Community service work is usually menial work, such as raking leaves, picking up garbage, or washing dishes in a school cafeteria. In some cities, workfare workers have replaced regular workers. Although the law prohibits the direct substitution of welfare recipients for currently paid workers, some localities have circumvented this requirement by not renewing expired employment contracts with paid workers. In many localities, low-wage workers were displaced by workfare “trainees” working off their welfare benefits at less than the minimum wage—sometimes as little as $1.50 an hour (Cooper, 1997). In mid-1997 in Baltimore, 1,000 workers had lost jobs to welfare trainees, despite the fact that city workers had only two years before won a city ordinance guaranteeing a living wage to anyone employed under contracts with the city (Cooper, 1997).

(Video) Social Welfare Fn Overview

I started going to school to get my GED two years ago, then started college classes. My case manager said that a degree in culinary arts wasn’t acceptable, so I switched to an AA degree, working part time and going to school full time. My case manager said I could only get childcare for the time I was working, not in school, and that I would lose my TANF. I said that wasn’t a possibility and we could not live off of food stamps and medical benefits. I had to be really persistent and very vocal to get the benefits my family needs.

I work 19 hours a week, but the requirement is 20, so I have to do one hour of community service. Here is my typical day. I get up at 5 a.m. and get my daughter ready and we are on the bus by 6 a.m. It takes 3 buses and 2 hours to get us to the daycare, then me to college. I work from 8 to 10 at the college, and then to class from 10 to 12. Instead of a lunch break I go to the work source office for an hour of community service and then back to school. If it’s Tuesday or Thursday I go to class from 1:15 to 3:05; if it’s Monday, Wednesday, or Friday I go back to work from 1:30 to 3:30. The buses home take 3 hours, because of the afternoon schedule, so my daughter and I get home at 6:30, unless we have to stop at the store for groceries, then it’s 7:30. We have dinner, bath time, and my daughter is in bed by 8. I stay up until 11:30 or 12:30 doing homework, then get up at 5 a.m. to start it all over again.

It’s hard because I don’t have support. Being a full-time student and working 20 hours a week is hard on me and not fair to my daughter. Single parents have the hardest time because we don’t get the chances others have. Please remove the barriers to education so I can finish school and build a better life for my family. (Young, 2010)

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(Video) Factors determining Social Welfare Programmes

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(Video) New policies for social welfare benefits announced

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FAQs

What are some examples of social welfare policy? ›

Social welfare consists of various local, state, and government programs designed to assist people with food, housing, and medical care. Some examples are Medicaid, disability income, low-income housing, and the SNAP program.

What is social welfare policy? ›

Social welfare policy — which guides the government programs that assist people in need — builds on the idea that a government has a responsibility to protect its citizens from harm. According to the principle, a society can thrive only when it provides safeguards for those who face risks to their well-being.

What are the 4 components of the community health nursing process? ›

The four processes that form the core of advanced public/community health nursing practice are community assessment, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. These processes are the same as described in the practice models earlier.

What are the 6 responsibilities of community public health nurses? ›

It deals with the roles and activities of nurses whose main focus is “health promotion, health protection, disease and injury prevention, health surveillance, population health assessment, as well as emergency preparedness and response,” (p.

What are most social welfare policies? ›

Social welfare includes healthcare, empowerment, housing and other programs geared towards assisting the poor, unemployed and marginalized in society. Such programs include Medicaid, AFDC (Aid for families with dependent children), WIC (women, infants and children) programs, veteran programs and others.

What is the main goal of social welfare policies? ›

This goal involves the identification of the most afflicted, the most dependent, the most neglected, and those least able to help themselves, and making them the priority target for the investment of scarce resources.

What are the two biggest social welfare programs? ›

What are the two largest and most expensive social welfare programs in America? Social Security and Medicare. Provide benefits to people with specific needs.

What are the 3 purposes of social policies? ›

The main goal of social policies is to ensure that everyone in society lives in peace and harmony away from conflicts. With social policies, it is aimed to ensure social justice, social development, social balance, social integration, and social peace.

Why are social welfare programs and services important? ›

Social Welfare Policies and Gender

At a minimum, social welfare policies should protect individuals from poverty and relative deprivation. More ambitiously, the policies aim to promote the general welfare and well being of the population.

What are the 5 nursing interventions? ›

These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

What is the importance of community health nursing process? ›

The community health nursing process is a systematic, rational method and providing nursing care for the prevention of disease and promotion of health of the community. Nursing has an organized structure that helps nurses to efficiently apply their intellectual, psychomotor, and interpersonal skills.

What are the 5 components of nursing care plan? ›

Care plans are structured as a five-step framework: assessment, diagnosis, outcomes and planning, implementation, and evaluation.
...
What Are the Components of a Care Plan?
  • Step 1: Assessment. ...
  • Step 2: Diagnosis. ...
  • Step 3: Outcomes and Planning. ...
  • Step 4: Implementation. ...
  • Step 5: Evaluation.
Jul 5, 2021

How can nurses improve community health? ›

Nurses everywhere help improve community health in their capacity as engaged community members. They check in on elderly neighbors, serve on local boards and commissions, and organize fundraising efforts for health-related causes.

What is the most important role of the community health nurse? ›

The primary role of community health nurses is to provide treatment to patients. Additionally, community health nurses offer education to community members about maintaining their health so that they can decrease the occurrence of diseases and deaths.

What is the role of nurses in the community? ›

Nurses play an essential role in society today by being advocates for health promotion, educating the public and patients on preventing injury and illnesses, participating in rehabilitation, and providing care and support.

What are some examples of policies that impact social work? ›

Key Policy Issues
  • Affordable Care Act Integration.
  • Child Welfare.
  • Interstate Licensure Compact.
  • Medicare Reimbursement.

What is social welfare policies programs and services as the area in social work? ›

Social welfare policy is the context through which the public sanctions the delivery of clinical social work services and legitimizes the role of the social work profession.

What are two key characteristics of social welfare policies? ›

Individual well-being linked to the environment/community. Empowerment through community involvement. Encouraged organizations to gain political and social power.

Why are social policies important? ›

Social policy aims to improve human welfare and to meet human needs for education, health, housing and economic security.

What is social policy and why is it important? ›

Social policy is concerned with the ways societies across the world meet human needs for security, education, work, health and wellbeing. Social policy addresses how states and societies respond to global challenges of social, demographic and economic change, and of poverty, migration and globalisation.

What are the advantages of social welfare policy? ›

A social welfare system offers assistance to individuals and families in need, with such programs as health care assistance, food stamps, and unemployment compensation. Lesser known parts of a social welfare system include disaster relief and educational assistance.

What are the six major social welfare programs? ›

The six programs most commonly associated with the “social safety net” include: (1) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), (2) the Food Stamp Program (FSP), (3) Supplemental Security Income (SSI), (4) Medicaid, (5) housing assistance, and (6) the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).

What are the types of policies? ›

Four types of policies include Public Policy, Organizational Policy, Functional Policy, and Specific Policy. Policy refers to a course of action proposed by an organization or individual.

How does social policy affect health? ›

Social policies influence health indirectly, by virtue of their effect on social determinants of health such as education, income, employment or housing. Since these factors are key causes of health, they can in turn affect health outcomes.

What are the three types of nursing intervention? ›

There are typically three different categories for nursing interventions: independent, dependent and interdependent.

What is the best nursing intervention? ›

7 Nursing Interventions You Do Every Single Shift – Written by a...
  1. Active listening. This is something that hopefully you will do with each and every patient. ...
  2. Prevent falls. ...
  3. Control pain. ...
  4. Cluster care. ...
  5. Turn every two hours / promote position changes. ...
  6. Promote adequate oral intake. ...
  7. Promote self-care.

What should the nurses do to encourage community participation? ›

To encourage community participation, which of the following should a nurse do? Invite people from civic organizations. Refer to the doctor for prescriptions. Encourage sponsorship to programs.

What are the principles of community health nursing? ›

12 Principles of Community Health Nursing
  • The recognized need of individuals, families and communities provides the basis for CHN practice. ...
  • Knowledge and understanding of the objectives and policies of the agency facilities goal achievement. ...
  • CHN considers the family as the unit of service.
Dec 18, 2013

What is the importance of a nursing care plan? ›

Care plans play a vital role in the treatment of a patient. They clearly define guidelines along with the nurse's role in patient care and help them create and achieve a solid plan of action. This equips nurses to provide focused care—without overlooking important steps.

What are the types of nursing care plan? ›

Nursing care plan formats are usually categorized or organized into four columns: (1) nursing diagnoses, (2) desired outcomes and goals, (3) nursing interventions, and (4) evaluation. Some agencies use a three-column plan wherein goals and evaluation are in the same column.

What is the major purpose of the nursing process? ›

The following are the purposes of the nursing process: To identify the client's health status and actual or potential health care problems or needs (through assessment). To establish plans to meet the identified needs. To deliver specific nursing interventions to meet those needs.

What role can nurses play in community activism? ›

Nurses are strong patient advocates. They protect the health and rights of their patients daily. But beyond patient advocacy, nurses can rally on behalf of other nurses and healthcare providers. As a nurse, you can take simple steps to affect real change in your institution, community, or state.

What is the community health nurses role in health promotion and disease prevention? ›

One of the most critical roles that nurses have in health promotion and disease preventions is that of an educator. Nurses spend the most time with the patients and provide anticipatory guidance about immunizations, nutrition, dietary, medications, and safety.

What are the management functions of the community health nurse? ›

The community health nurse provides care along the entire range of the wellness-illness continuum; however, promotion of health and prevention of illness are emphasized. Skills in observation, listening, communication, counselling, and physical care are important for the community health nurse.

What are two key characteristics of social welfare policies? ›

Individual well-being linked to the environment/community. Empowerment through community involvement. Encouraged organizations to gain political and social power.

What is social welfare policy quizlet? ›

Social Welfare Policy. Social welfare policy regulates the provision of benefits to people to meet basic life needs, such as employment, income, food, housing, health care, and relationships.

What is social policy and why is it important? ›

Social policy is concerned with the ways societies across the world meet human needs for security, education, work, health and wellbeing. Social policy addresses how states and societies respond to global challenges of social, demographic and economic change, and of poverty, migration and globalisation.

What are some examples of policies that impact social work? ›

Key Policy Issues
  • Affordable Care Act Integration.
  • Child Welfare.
  • Interstate Licensure Compact.
  • Medicare Reimbursement.

What are the most important features of a social welfare program? ›

Key Takeaways

A social welfare system offers assistance to individuals and families in need, with such programs as health care assistance, food stamps, and unemployment compensation. Lesser known parts of a social welfare system include disaster relief and educational assistance.

Why are social welfare programs and services important? ›

Social Welfare Policies and Gender

At a minimum, social welfare policies should protect individuals from poverty and relative deprivation. More ambitiously, the policies aim to promote the general welfare and well being of the population.

What are selective social welfare programs? ›

selective social welfare programs are. services that are restricted to only those who can demonstrate proven need and/or meet certain criteria. institutional and selective approaches to social welfare would include. unemployment insurance. values.

What is an institutional approach to social welfare policy? ›

The institutional approach requires that government social programs cater for all citizens, irrespective of income, and ensure that they are protected against the contingencies of modern life.

Which of the following are examples of in kind benefits? ›

Examples of the Most Common Benefits in Kind
  • Pension or retirement benefits.
  • Housing Allowances or Below Market Rent.
  • Moving and Relocation Expenses.
  • Use of a Company Car.
  • Childcare Expenses.
  • Tuition or education subsidy.
  • Interest Free or Low Cost Loans.
  • Insurance (e.g. Health, Life or Income Protection)
Oct 6, 2015

How does social policy affect health? ›

Social policies influence health indirectly, by virtue of their effect on social determinants of health such as education, income, employment or housing. Since these factors are key causes of health, they can in turn affect health outcomes.

What is social policy and public policy? ›

Public policy covers any government-related actions concerning society at large –, anything from taxation and law to energy or emissions, for example. Whereas social policy is focused on solving social problems, such as economic and educational inequality, racial and health disparities.

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