There's biology in everything, even when you're feeling spiritual.
- Helen Fisher
Human welfare is the core of subjective ethics. It simply means that the scientific and technological advancements ultimately aim at the welfare of humans. Having said that, biology itself is the branch of science that not only studies morphology, anatomy, physiology, genetics, and metabolism of living beings but also aims at improving, innovating and carving new niches to bring about fundamental changes in the welfare of humans. Biology and human welfare began right from human civilization. Biology and human welfare are exemplified by the domestication of plants and animals, making of cheese and curd, brewing of alcohol and the list can continue to eternity! Agricultural practices, food processing, and diagnostics have brought socio-cultural changes in human communities. Hence, it is essential for us to understand the very basics of biology and human welfare along with exploring the future possibilities. Therefore, allow yourself to be introduced to the astounding chapter of biology and human welfare where you would get to know various applicable aspects of biology in human welfare.
Introduction to Biology and Human Welfare
From the perspective of NEET biology syllabus, the chapter of biology and human welfare encompass a wide variety of topics that account for an approximate 5% weightage in the NEET exam. Now, here is the point where most of the aspirants make a grave mistake! The weightage does not seem quite lucrative and so the concepts of biology and human welfare are left to be studied for the last moment. You should understand that easy and interesting chapters like biology and human welfare increase the chances for better scoring. Hence, they are not supposed to be ignored. Rather, they should be taken as goody-bag in the syllabus!
The application-based concepts are well defined in the eighth unit of the NCERT textbook for class 12. We shall make it our base of studying and understanding by correlating the various topics of biology and human welfare mentioned in the NEET biology syllabus.
Notes on Biology and Human Welfare
Let us explore the various topics of the chapter biology and human welfare along with understanding their practical utility and importance from the NEET exam perspective.
1. Human Health and Diseases: Since time immemorial, human health has intrigued the intelligence of philosophers and thinkers. Earlier, health was the component of physical well-being only. The Greeks like Hippocrates as well as Indian Ayurveda system of medicine asserted health to be the balance of certain ‘humour’ in the body. However, with the advent of scientific discoveries, like the circulation of blood by William Harvey, that establish more than just ‘humour’ balance, these notions changed and health began to expand its horizon beyond physical well being.
Presently, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." As a consequence, the biological improvisations are made with this holistic view of health. Therefore, in order to achieve ‘healthy’ human populations across the globe, it is crucial to realise the threats to health and this is the essence of the chapter human health and diseases. Isn’t fascinating to read such an impactful topic for your NEET preparation?
So, let us see the topics mentioned in this chapter of biology and human welfare:
- Common diseases in humans: pathogens and parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm)
- Basic concepts of immunology: Innate immunity, Acquired immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Vaccination and Immunisation, Allergies, Auto Immunity
- Immune System in the Body
- AIDS and HIV: Replication of retrovirus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Prevention of AIDS,
- Cancer: Causes of cancer, Cancer detection and diagnosis, treatment of cancer
- Drugs and alcohol abuse: Opioids, Cannabinoids, Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Dependence, Effects of Drug/Alcohol Abuse, Prevention and Control
Given the nature of topics covered under this chapter of biology and human welfare, it becomes imperative to read and understand these topics not only to score well in the NEET exam but also to gather practical implications in daily life. You can disseminate the word on AIDS, alcohol and drug abuse, etc. to different groups and can be a part of human welfare.
2. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: As the holistic understanding of health progressed and improved the health quotient in the human population, the life expectancy increased which resulted in pressure over the existing sources of food. Therefore, enhancement of food production also became the component of biology and human welfare. Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase food production. This chapter of biology and human welfare offers un understanding of such techniques.
Let us understand the make-up of different strategies used for the enhancement of food production:
- Animal husbandry: Dairy Farm Management, Poultry Farm Management,
- Animal breeding: Inbreeding, inbreeding depression, Out-breeding, Out-crossing, Cross-breeding, Interspecific hybridization, artificial insemination, Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET)
- Plant breeding: Green revolution, Indian hybrid crops, Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests, Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality,
- Single-cell protein
- Tissue culture
You would be glad to find that this chapter of biology and human welfare offers a plethora of specialization programs and jobs! Hence, you would read it through the NEET preparation but can provide career guidance to someone who is interested in the applied field of food enhancement. Remember that the chapter of biology and human welfare is a goody-bag in the syllabus!
3. Microbes in Human Welfare: It is a general perception that microbes are disease-causing organisms. This is in fact true. However, when it comes to the application of biology in human welfare, we have tapped a plethora of microbes for human welfare. This has become such an integral part of human lives that removal of these microbes would dwindle a great proportion of human populations.
Therefore, this chapter would take you to the world of microbes doing mammoth tasks for human welfare. Let us understand the various topics entailed in this chapter of biology and human welfare:
- Microbes in household products: lactic acid bacteria, baker’s yeast, fungi
- Microbes in industrial products: Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
- Microbes in sewage treatment
- Microbes in production of biogas
- Microbes as biocontrol agents
- Microbes as biofertilizers
Hence, an exhaustive account of useful microbes can be understood along with the practical implication. This chapter is one of the captivating chapters that would really gather your attention. This is the all-time recommended chapter for those students who are appearing for class 12 boards for making the annual biology assignments. There is a direct incidence of the practical application associated with this chapter. Therefore, it provides room for innovation as well.
Tips for Biology and Human Welfare
- Read the chapter biology and human welfare with an awareness of its practical implications.
- Remember the pathogens, disease-outbreak in recent past, concepts of immunity along with newly discovered vaccines, if any.
- Solve previous years’ questions to gather insight into the pattern of questions.
- Read the chapter on regular interval to prevent any slip of memory.
- Chapter biology and human welfare offer chances to score well. Therefore, do not ignore it until the last months of preparation.
Books to Refer for Biology and Human Welfare
- The NCERT textbook for class 12
- A Textbook of CBSE Biology for Class 12 by Sarita Aggarwal
- Trueman’s Elementary Biology Volume 2
Biology Units-wise Notes for Medical Exams
Diversity in Living World
(Video) How to Read Notes Fast - The Landmark System
Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Cell Structure and Function
(Video) Using Roam Research to keep up with books to read (and notes from them)
Genetics and Evolution
Biotechnology and Its Applications
Ecology and Environment
If you are highlighting notes and then you read them again and again, we've got bad news for you:rereading notes is not an effective studying method. In other words, if you're doing this, you're wasting your own time. Why? Our brain learns by doing what we want to learn.
- Review the subject to get a good overview.
- Work out the main themes and topics.
- Identify key concepts or information.
- Make brief and legible notes.
- Summarise important information.
- Use clear headings.
- Organise notes by topic.
- Identify how topics are connected.
Whether you are learning online or in person, the physical act of writing can help you remember better than just listening or reading. Research shows that taking notes by hand is more effective than typing on a laptop.
- Repetition, repetition, repetition. ...
- Pictures are easier to remember than words so if you're short on time, draw an image.
- If you like to colour code, don't do it during initial note-taking.
- Write short, succinct sentences.
- Save time and use abbreviations and symbols.
- Try to understand the information first. Information that is organized and makes sense to you is easier to memorize. ...
- Link it. ...
- Sleep on it. ...
- Self-test. ...
- Use distributed practice. ...
- Write it out. ...
- Create meaningful groups. ...
- Use mnemonics.
- Improve Your Memory. Sam Edwards / Getty Images. ...
- Keep Learning New Things. Prasit photo / Getty Images. ...
- Learn in Multiple Ways. Hero Images / Getty Images. ...
- Teach What You Are Learning. Hero Images / Getty Images. ...
- Build on Previous Learning. ...
- Gain Practical Experience. ...
- Don't Be Afraid to Make Mistakes. ...
- Use Distributed Practice.
The short answer is yes. Online exams can detect cheating. Authentication procedures, web monitoring, data forensics, and proctoring (just to name a few) make it hard for examinees to get away with cheating.
- Find the right workplace. ...
- Make the most use of your time. ...
- Assemble your requirements properly to avoid distractions. ...
- Compile all your notes. ...
- Avoid cramming for long hours. ...
- Prioritize and work accordingly. ...
- Talk to someone around you.
No. The OBE is not easy. On the contrary, it would need extra efforts from students to solve questions as it would mainly be of higher order thinking. Most students think the level of exam would be easy and they would be able to find all the answers in the textbook.
It keeps you awake. Note taking forces you to pay attention and helps you focus in class (or while reading a textbook). It helps you learn. Studies on learning have shown that actively engaging with the topic by listening and then summarizing what you hear helps you understand and remember the information later.
- Schedule time to read. Reading is an easy thing to put off because there is often no exact due date. ...
- Set yourself up for success. Pick a location that is conducive to reading. ...
- Choose and use a specific reading strategy. ...
- Monitor your comprehension. ...
- Take notes as you read.
- stay active and engaged during your lectures, reading and revision.
- understand what you are learning and clarify your thinking.
- be selective and identify key ideas.
- remember the material.
- organise your ideas and make connections.
- plan and structure written assignments.
- Be alone. ...
- Remove yourself. ...
- Consume Caffeine. ...
- Work hard, then stop. ...
- Reduce your notes. ...
- Find Someone. ...
- Focus on the main points. ...
- Group things together.
Most of the students prefer to study in the early morning, generally from 4 or 5 AM in the morning as the brain is more likely to concentrate. It could be the best option for students who have more stamina early in the day.
- Try puzzles.
- Play cards.
- Build vocabulary.
- Use your senses.
- Learn a new skill.
- Teach a skill.
- Listen to music.
Every time you cheat, you're not learning skills and lessons that could be important later on. Cheating is disrespectful. Teachers work hard to share knowledge to help you be successful in academics, career, and life. Cheating shows a lack of respect for the efforts of your teacher and your classmates who did the work.
Wear a long-sleeved shirt and hide your cheat sheets under the sleeves. It is a very good method because your teacher won't look under your sleeves. And when your teacher isn't looking, you can easily take out a cheat sheet, and it's easy to put it back.
Instead of relying solely on technology and software, educational institutions usually use a mix of both software and human proctoring to check for cheating. Students are usually asked to provide photo ID over a webcam to prove it is them sitting the exam and not someone else.
Research shows that in general, study is most effective when broken into chunks and broken up by rests. Ideally, in on hour intervals — 50 minutes of study, and then ten minutes of rest. The best use of rest time is to get up from the desk, walk around, and get the blood flowing again.
So, because of cramming you may also get bad grades after studying hard. Instead of cramming or studying a lot day before the exam, study the whole session. And agree or not, the student who studies the whole session, never cram.
- Wake up early. ...
- Choose the right place to work. ...
- Go to the library prepared. ...
- Create a plan before you start. ...
- Refrain from panicking. ...
- Use lecture slides and past papers. ...
- Study without technology and social media. ...
- Re-read your lecture notes and highlight.
How to Pass an Online Exam | Best Study Tips in 2021 - YouTube
Open-note exams are better suited to learning goals that ask students to apply knowledge or analyze situations rather than identify concepts or provide definitions. Consider your grading capacity. Open-note exams do not need to involve short answer responses but they can.
Phillips found that open-book exams improved study skills by constructing tests with contextual clues that helped students effectively identify correct answers in the text (Phillips, 2006). Open-book exams also compliment a learner-centered approach to education.
- You learn actively. When you take notes, you're processing information. ...
- You're more attentive. ...
- You know what to prioritize. ...
- You can learn more about a topic. ...
- You improve your organizational skills. ...
- How to improve your note-taking?
- Notes are a useful record of key information, and the sources of that information.
- Writing notes helps you remember what you heard.
- Taking notes helps you to concentrate and listen effectively.
- Selecting what to note down increases your understanding.
Use the four primary methods of note taking: lists, outlines, concept maps, and the Cornell method.
Reading gets your mind working across different areas. For starters, it involves comprehension to process the words you read. Beyond that, you can use your analytical abilities, stimulate memories, and even broaden your imagination by reading words off a page.
The WISELY Way to Read - YouTube
The primary purpose of note taking is to encourage active learning and to prepare study materials for exams. Developing note taking skills should help you organize information into an understandable format that will assist in your studying process. There are multiple methods for taking notes.
Features of good notes
Efficient and effective notes: are organised into key ideas and supporting ideas. use bullet points. use visual techniques, e.g. highlighting, graphics, colours, and underlining to identify main points.
- Don't write down every word. ...
- Decide what is important. ...
- Be an active listener/reader. ...
- Use symbols and abbreviations. ...
- Use colours. ...
- Revise your notes as soon as possible. ...
- Be consistent. ...
- Improve your handwriting.
To get higher marks in your exams, take thorough notes in your classes so you can use them to study. Also, try to study for at least 30 minutes every day leading up to your exams so you memorize the material. Avoid cramming for your tests the night before or you could overload your brain and forget everything.
The Night Studier
For students who have more energy later in the day, evening or nighttime can be a more effective time to study. With fewer distractions and peace and quiet, studying at night can help improve a student's concentration and focus.
One of the most common reasons students find it difficult to study, is because of a lack of concentration. Once you start studying it is important to stay focused and not let your thoughts wander.
To find the best posture for studying, sit down and position your limbs. Avoid leaning on the desk and keep your back erect pressing slightly towards the chair. Keep both your feet straight on the ground. If you're working on your computer, keep it straight at an arm's length to avoid straining your eyes.
- Collect your materials. ...
- Get enough sleep. ...
- Set your alarms. ...
- Lay out your outfit. ...
- Map out your route the night before. ...
- Listen to music. ...
- Repeat positive affirmations. ...
- Calm yourself with focused breathing.
So Written Notes Don't Work.
Study after study has shown that the best way to help the brain remember is to actively engage with the information.
Repetition – The more you repeat, the more you remember. This can occur by literally re-reading a certain passage or in highlighting it or writing it down then returning to it again later. Practicing these three elements of remembering will help you get better and better.
Unless you have an efficient process for using your notes, taking them is probably a waste of time. They just pile up, like so much unwashed laundry. If you prefer handwritten notes, ask yourself how many stacks of paper you've accumulated that you never looked at again.