Animal Husbandry - Meaning, Types, Advantages and More (2022)

  • Written By Umesh_K
  • Last Modified 20-07-2022

Animal Husbandry - Meaning, Types, Advantages and More (1)

Animal Husbandry: Animal Husbandry is defined as the controlled cultivation, management, and production of domestic animals, as well as the improvement of attributes deemed desirable by humans through breeding. It is a sophisticated method of livestock breeding. The world population is growing and so is the demand for both animal and plant-based food products. And to meet such demand, the practice of Animal Husbandry comes into the picture.

Animal husbandry keeps a strict check on animal care, breeding, and management, among other things. Animal husbandry is a huge business. The animals are born, raised, and housed in a farm or location developed exclusively for them. Poultry, dairy farms, apiculture (beekeeping), aquaculture, and other associated activities are all examples of animal husbandry. Check out the article to know more about animal products, roles and advantages, and types of animal husbandry.

Animal Husbandry Meaning

Domesticated animals of any breed or population of animals that are intentionally kept in an agricultural setting for the benefit of human beings are referred to as ‘livestock’. The agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock is called animal husbandry.

Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of animals like buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), Cows (Bos indicus), pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., by humans for various products like milk, meat, wool, etc. Poultry farming and fisheries are also considered as part of animal husbandry.

Types of Animal Husbandry

There are mainly four types of animal husbandry practices depending on the type of animal. Continue reading to know more about these practices:

1. Cattle Farming: This type of farming involves taking care of cattle like cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep for the production of milk or agricultural activities like irrigation, ploughing, etc. These animals are reared and managed by mostly farmers to increase their income. The animals which provide milk are called milch animals. Milk is further used to make many dairy products like curd, cheese, cream, butter, etc. These products are manufactured industrially and used for commercial purposes. We also get meat from some cattle. Animals in these farms are provided with shelter, healthy food, health check-up by doctors, etc.

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2. Poultry Farming: The term ‘Poultry’ means rearing domesticated birds for food (meat) or their eggs, for example, chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys and some varieties of pigeons. Poultry birds reared for meat are called broilers, while the female birds raised for egg production are called layers.
Poultry has emerged as one of the biggest industries in India, thus providing good income opportunities for farmers and employment for many others. However, this industry requires regular maintenance of sanitation and hygiene.

3. Fish Farming: Rearing of fish in tanks or ponds commercially is known as fish farming or pisciculture. Fishes and some other marine animals are good sources of protein. Hence, there is a huge demand for these. Fishing can be done in two ways, natural resources, and artificial farming. Natural resources such as the sea, lakes, rivers, etc., provide a wide range of fisheries. Common fish species like salmon, tuna, catfish, trout, tilapia, etc., are raised in fish farms.

4. Bee Farming: Bee farming involves rearing honey bees in artificial hives for the production of honey on a large scale. Bee farming is also called apiculture. The area used for keeping bees is known as an apiary or a bee yard. Bees are reared for honey and beeswax. They are also used as pollinators for flowers. Honey is for a wide range of purposes like medicine, food, beauty products, etc. Hence, apiculture is also one of the important industries.

Animal Husbandry - Meaning, Types, Advantages and More (2)

Fig. Animal Husbandry

Some Important Animal Products

Animal husbandry holds great importance due to the products received from these practices. These products not only fulfil the nutritional needs of a large population but are also used for other purposes like clothing, beauty, medicines, etc.

Some important animal products that we get from animal husbandry are:

Animal ProductsMajor Uses
MilkMilk is considered a complete food and is the main diet of small children.
It is also used to make dairy products like curd, cheese, ice cream, butter, etc., on an industrial scale and used for commercial purposes.
Eggs Eggs are a good source of proteins and obtained from poultry birds.
Meat Animals like poultry, birds, fish, crabs, prawns, and some cattle are reared for their meat as a food product.
Fibre Camels, sheep, and certain species of goats provide us with leather and fibre like wool.
Manure The wastes of animals are used to make manure which can be spread on fields to increase the crop yield.
Animal Byproduct Animal waste like cow dung is used for plastering walls and floors. The casein present in the milk combined with the lime gives a good quality plaster.

Role of Animal Husbandry in Human Welfare

Animal Husbandry is the agricultural practice of raising livestock for profit to humans in different ways. It performs a significant role in improving the welfare of humans, for example:

1. It provides many useful products such as eggs, meat, wool, silk, milk, honey, etc., that are very important in our daily life.
2. It aids to increase the employment rate in the country, especially for farmers.
3. It provides an increase in the production of food to meet the requirement of a large population.
4. At the commercial level, it provides lots of earning opportunities to the farmers by the exportation of their products.
5. All together it leads to strengthening the economy of the country.

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Advantages of Animal Husbandry

There are several advantages of animal husbandry to the farmers as well as other people. Some of these are:

1. Animal Husbandry includes the practice of cross-breeding, which helps in developing high-yielding breeds.
2. Milk and milk products like curd, cheese, yogurt, etc., can be obtained from dairy animals like cows, buffaloes, and goats.
3. Certain animals like poultry, birds, fishes, prawns, etc., are reared for their meat products which have high nutritional value.
4. It provides jobs to a large number of people, thus helping to improve the economic status of people as well as the country.
5. It helps in the proper disposal and management of animal waste leading to a clean and safe environment.
6. It helps in the production of manure or compost, which can be spread in the field to enhance the crop’s yield.
7. Wool and also leather are important by-products that are obtained from animals such as sheep, camels, etc. These are in huge demand in the market all over the world.
8. It is not only good for humans but animals too. Animals are provided with shelter, feed, and protection against diseases.

Animal Husbandry: Summary

As the population increases and as living standards increase, the demand for milk, eggs, and meat is also going up. To improve quality and increase productivity, there is a need to apply new technologies, in addition to the conventional practices of animal breeding and care. Animal husbandry involves certain scientific techniques in the management of animal livestock.

Moreover, it involves various aspects like feeding, breeding, and disease control management that help to keep up with the increasing demands of animal products. Animal husbandry requires better planning for a domestic animal shelter, breeding, health, disease control, and proper economic utilization.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Animal Husbandry

Some of the frequently asked questions on Animal Husbandry are mentioned below:

Q.1: What is Animal Husbandry? Explain.
Ans: Farm animals require proper care and management such as shelter, feeding, breeding (by artificial insemination), and disease control. This is known as animal husbandry. In other words, the agricultural practices of breeding and raising livestock is called animal husbandry.

Q.2: What is another word for Animal Husbandry?
Ans: Animal farming is another word for animal husbandry. There are many others also such as animal rearing, livestock farming, animal culture, ranching, etc.

Q.3: What is the importance of animal husbandry?
Ans: Animal Husbandry is important in many aspects. Some of these are:
(a) It increases milk production to fulfil the needs of the growing population.
(b) It helps to increase the economy of the country by providing employment opportunities and transportation of valuable products.
(c) It provides a better living environment for both animals and humans.
(d) It helps in the utilization of animal waste leading to a clean and safe environment.

Q.4: What are the main features of animal husbandry?
Ans: The main features of animal husbandry are:
(a) Proper care of animals
(b) Proper feeding to animals
(c) Providing fresh drinking water to animals
(d) Proper health of animals and protection against diseases
(e) Maintaining a neat environment or shelter for the animals to live in.

Q.5: Why is it called Husbandry?
Ans: During the \(13{\text{th}}\) century, “husbandman” was a term given to farmers, and the word “Husbandry” came from the word ‘husband’ which means to manage carefully. Since animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock, it is called animal husbandry means taking care of an animal in a proper way.

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We hope that this detailed article on Animal Husbandry was helpful to develop a better understanding of the concept. If you have any queries, then do let us know about them in the comment section below. Our team will revert to you at the earliest.

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